How can I make my JWT more secure?

JWT Security Best Practices

  1. JSON Web Tokens Introduction.
  2. JWTs used as Access Tokens.
  3. What algorithms to use.
  4. When to validate the token.
  5. Always check the issuer.
  6. Always check the audience.
  7. Make sure tokens are used as intended.
  8. Dealing with expiration, issued time and clock skew.

Is JWT secure enough?

JWT is a very modern, simple and secure approach which extends for Json Web Tokens. Json Web Tokens are a stateless solution for authentication. So there is no need to store any session state on the server, which of course is perfect for restful APIs.

Can JWT be encrypted?

Signing and encryption order

JSON Web Tokens (JWT) can be signed then encrypted to provide confidentiality of the claims. While it’s technically possible to perform the operations in any order to create a nested JWT, senders should first sign the JWT, then encrypt the resulting message.

Which is more secure JWT or OAuth?

OAuth2 is very flexible. JWT implementation is very easy and does not take long to implement. If your application needs this sort of flexibility, you should go with OAuth2. But if you don’t need this use-case scenario, implementing OAuth2 is a waste of time.

Is JWT encoded or encrypted?

Don’t include sensitive data unless you encrypt the payload

As we said above, JWT are not encrypted by default, so care must be taken with the information included inside the token. If you need to include sensitive information inside a token, then encrypted JWT must be used.

What is better than JWT?

PASETO, or Platform Agnostic Security Token is one of the most successful designs that is being widely accepted by the community as the best-secured alternative to JWT.

Can someone steal my JWT token?

Remember, once a JWT (JSON Web Token) is stolen, it can be the worst thing for an individual and the enterprise as there’s a huge chance of data breach and exploitation.

Which algorithm is best for JWT?

The option with the best security and performance is EdDSA, though ES256 (The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) using P-256 and SHA-256) is also a good choice. The most widely used option, supported by most technology stacks, is RS256 (RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256).

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Is it safe to pass JWT in URL?

As mentioned in my previous answer, JWT tokens are URL-safe when it comes to their syntax. Here is a quote from the RFC 7519: A JWT is represented as a sequence of URL-safe parts separated by period ( . ) characters.

How can I secure my REST API?

2. Best Practices to Secure REST APIs

  1. 2.1. Keep it Simple. Secure an API/System – just how secure it needs to be.
  2. 2.2. Always Use HTTPS.
  3. 2.3. Use Password Hash.
  4. 2.4. Never expose information on URLs.
  5. 2.5. Consider OAuth.
  6. 2.6. Consider Adding Timestamp in Request.
  7. 2.7. Input Parameter Validation.

Should I use JWT for authentication?

Bottom line. Although JWT does eliminate the database lookup, it introduces security issues and other complexities while doing so. Security is binary—either it’s secure or it’s not. Thus making it dangerous to use JWT for user sessions.

What is difference between OAuth and JWT?

Basically, JWT is a token format. OAuth is an authorization protocol that can use JWT as a token. OAuth uses server-side and client-side storage. If you want to do real logout you must go with OAuth2.

Do we need to store JWT in database?

Similarly, in case of refresh token (JWT or not) — we need to save it in DB to revoke and prevent malicious user access. Code, read, and change the world!

Is JWT an API key?

Typically, the API key provides only application-level security, giving every user the same access; whereas the JWT token provides user-level access. A JWT token can contain information like its expiration date and a user identifier to determine the rights of the user across the entire ecosystem.

Is JWT authentication or authorization?

To authenticate a user, a client application must send a JSON Web Token (JWT) in the authorization header of the HTTP request to your backend API. API Gateway validates the token on behalf of your API, so you don’t have to add any code in your API to process the authentication.

How long should a JWT last?

Authentication is implemented through JWT access tokens along with refresh tokens. The API returns a short-lived token (JWT), which expires in 15 minutes, and in HTTP cookies, the refresh token expires in 7 days.

What’s risk of JWT if you didn’t take care?

For instance, if an attacker gets ahold of your JWT, they could start sending requests to the server identifying themselves as you and do things like make service changes, user account updates, etc. Once an attacker has your JWT it is game over.

Where can I store JWT secrets?

To reiterate, whatever you do, don’t store a JWT in local storage (or session storage). If any of the third-party scripts you include in your page is compromised, it can access all your users’ tokens. To keep them secure, you should always store JWTs inside an httpOnly cookie.

Where JWT token is stored?

A JWT needs to be stored in a safe place inside the user’s browser. Any way,you shouldn’t store a JWT in local storage (or session storage). If you store it in a LocalStorage/SessionStorage then it can be easily grabbed by an XSS attack. If the answer is helpful, please click “Accept Answer” and upvote it.

How do I know if my JWT token is tampered with?

So… you take the signature of the token, decode it from base64, take the encryption algorithm from the header and generate the signature for the base64 encoded header + ‘. ‘ + base64 encoded payload. If the signature you calculated and the signature you received match, then most likely nobody tampered with the JWT.

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Does Google use JWT?

With some Google APIs, you can make authorized API calls using a signed JWT instead of using OAuth 2.0, which can save you a network request.

Making the access token request.

Name Description
assertion The JWT, including signature.

What should be in JWT payload?

1 Answer

  • Registered claims like sub , iss , exp or nbf.
  • Public claims with public names or names registered by IANA which contain values that should be unique like email , address or phone_number . See full list.
  • Private claims to use in your own context and values can collision.

Which authentication is best for REST API?

OAuth (specifically, OAuth 2.0) is considered a gold standard when it comes to REST API authentication, especially in enterprise scenarios involving sophisticated web and mobile applications. OAuth 2.0 can support dynamic collections of users, permission levels, scope parameters and data types.

Which of these is the most secure way of authenticating an API?

Every web API should use TLS (Transport Layer Security). TLS protects the information your API sends (and the information that users send to your API) by encrypting your messages while they’re in transit. You might know TLS by its predecessor’s name, SSL.

How do I know if my JWT token is expired?

verify method to a function that returns a promise and assign it to jwtVerifyAsync . Then we call jwtVerifyAsync with the token and the token secret to check if the token is valid. If it’s expired, then it’s considered invalid and an error will be thrown.

How can I verify my JWT token online?

How to sign a JWT

  1. Signing Input. First, we take the first two segments of the JWT (the header and the payload).
  2. Hash the signing input. We then hash the signing input using the SHA-256 hashing algorithm.
  3. Encrypt the signing input.
  4. Decode Claims.
  5. Hashing (Again)
  6. Decryption.
  7. Compare Hashes.
  8. Verify Token Claims.

Why do we need JWT token?

Information Exchange: JWTs are a good way of securely transmitting information between parties because they can be signed, which means you can be sure that the senders are who they say they are. Additionally, the structure of a JWT allows you to verify that the content hasn’t been tampered with.

What is difference between bearer token and JWT?

In essence, a JSON Web Token (JWT) is a bearer token. It’s a particular implementation which has been specified and standardised. JWT in particular uses cryptography to encode a timestamp and some other parameters. This way, you can check if it’s valid by just decrypting it, without hitting a DB.

Does Passport use JWT?

A Passport strategy for authenticating with a JSON Web Token. This module lets you authenticate endpoints using a JSON web token. It is intended to be used to secure RESTful endpoints without sessions.

Why do we use Passport JS?

Passport is a popular, modular authentication middleware for Node. js applications. With it, authentication can be easily integrated into any Node- and Express-based app. The Passport library provides more than 500 authentication mechanisms, including OAuth, JWT, and simple username and password based authentication.

How do I secure my API key?

5 best practices for secure API key storage

  1. Don’t store your API key directly in your code.
  2. Don’t store your API key on client side.
  3. Don’t expose unencrypted credentials on code repositories, even private ones.
  4. Consider using an API secret management service.
  5. Generate a new key if you suspect a breach.

When should I use OAuth or API key?

Use API keys if you expect developers to build internal applications that don’t need to access more than a single user’s data. Use OAuth access tokens if you want users to easily provide authorization to applications without needing to share private data or dig through developer documentation.

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Can JWT token be stolen?

Remember, once a JWT (JSON Web Token) is stolen, it can be the worst thing for an individual and the enterprise as there’s a huge chance of data breach and exploitation.

What can I use instead of a JWT?

PASETO is designed as a replacement for JWTs, particularly their use in protocols such as OAuth and OpenID Connect.

Can you modify JWT token?

Someone can not change the header/payload unless has the secret key. if he/she has the secret key they can change the JWT token.

Is it possible to tamper JWT token?

When implemented correctly, JSON web tokens provide a secure way to identify the user since the data contained in the payload section cannot be tampered with. (Since the user does not have access to the secret key, she cannot sign the token herself.)

Can we change JWT token expiration time?

At maximum, the expiration period can be set up to 24 hours from time of issue. Note: This is an expiration time for the JWT token and not the access token. Access token expiration is set to 24 hours by default. “

When should JWT token be refreshed?

Authentication is implemented with JWT access tokens and refresh tokens. On successful authentication the API returns a short lived JWT access token that expires after 15 minutes, and a refresh token that expires after 7 days in an HTTP Only cookie.

How do you keep a JWT token alive?

A good pattern is to refresh the token before it expires. Set the token expiration to one week and refresh the token every time the user opens the web application and every one hour. If a user doesn’t open the application for more than a week, they will have to login again and this is acceptable web application UX.

Are JWT tokens insecure?

If you receive a JWT with an unexpected algorithm, type header, etc, discard it, and stop right there. Remember that JWTs can come in as HMAC protected, signed, encrypted, or even completely unsecured ( alg = none ). That a JWT parses and has the correct format does not mean that it can be trusted.

How do I reset my JWT token?

Reset Password Flow Under The Hood

  1. The user clicks on the reset password link and redirected to a page.
  2. The front-end sends the JWT parsed from the querystring to the backend to Verify the JWT using the user’s password hash (user is identified using the username in JWT payload).

How do you authenticate a JWT?

To authenticate a user, a client application must send a JSON Web Token (JWT) in the authorization header of the HTTP request to your backend API. API Gateway validates the token on behalf of your API, so you don’t have to add any code in your API to process the authentication.

How do I secure my bearer token?

OAuth 2.0 bearer tokens depend solely on SSL/TLS for its security, there is no internal protection or bearer tokens. if you have the token you are the owner. In many API providers who relay on OAuth 2.0 they put in bold that client developers should store securely and protect the token during it is transmission.

Can JWT be decoded without secret?

By design, anyone can decode a JWT and read the contents of the header and payload sections. But we need access to the secret key used to create the signature to verify a token’s integrity.

Is tokenization reversible?

Tokenization basically comes in two flavors: reversible and irreversible. Reversible tokens can be mapped to one or multiple pieces of data. This can be accomplished using strong cryptography, where a cryptographic key rather than the original data is stored or by using a data look-up in a data vault.